Because maintenance medications (methadone and buprenorphine) are themselves opioids and are able to produce euphoria in people who are not dependent on opioids, many people have assumed that this form of treatment just substitutes a new substance use disorder for an old one. This belief has unfortunately hindered the adoption of these effective treatments. In the past, even some inpatient treatment programs that were otherwise evidence-based did not allow patients to use these medications, in favor of an “abstinence only” philosophy.

Although it is possible for individuals who do not have an opioid use disorder to get high on buprenorphine or methadone, these medications affect people who have developed a high tolerance to opioids differently. At the doses prescribed, and as a result of their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties (the way they act at opioid receptor sites and their slower metabolism in the body), these medications do not produce a euphoric high but instead minimize withdrawal symptoms and cravings. This makes it possible for the patient to function normally, attend school or work, and participate in other forms of treatment or recovery support services to help them become free of their substance use disorder over time.

The ultimate aim could be to wean off the maintenance medication, but the treatment provider should make this decision jointly with the patient and tapering the medication must be done gradually. It may take months or years in some cases. Just as body tissues require prolonged periods to heal after injury and may require external supports (e.g., a cast and crutches or a wheelchair for a broken leg), brain circuits that have been altered by prolonged drug use and substance use disorder take time to recover and benefit from external supports in the form of medication. In cases of serious and long-term opioid use disorder, a patient may need these supports indefinitely.

In 2005, methadone and buprenorphine were added to the World Health Organization’s list of essential medicines, defined as medicines that are “intended to be available within the context of functioning health care systems at all times in adequate amounts, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality, and at a price the individual and the community can afford.”[SP1]

*Data and Reference Information Obtained from